Surface sow and lightly press in.
10-30 days from end of chilling period.
Stratify for 30-60 days. Sow in a container, cover with a plastic bag and refrigerate, or mix seed with damp clean sand or vermiculite, bag, and refrigerate at 35-40F. Check often for germination and maintain a lightly moist medium. Transplant any seedlings as they germinate. After the chill period, sow into soilless media and keep at 60-65F.
Direct sow in fall to early spring into prepared bed or wintersow into pots in the shade, covered with a thin layer of clean sand and a wire screen to keep out mice and voles. Check for water, keeping evenly moist.
PLACEMENT & CULTIVATION
This North American native is great for attracting bees and butterflies, and deer avoid it, making it a good choice for borders and meadow plantings. Excellent for bird-friendly gardens, it draws goldfinches to the seeds in fall. Blooms develop mid-summer and continue over a long period. Deadhead or cut for bouquets. It may require staking in especially windy locations. Divide every three years or so. Self-sows.
1" a week. Tolerates some drought once established.
Prefers neutral but will tolerate slightly acidic to slightly alkaline
Mix in about 2" of compost before planting, and top dress with an additional inch each spring.
Diseases & Pests:
Avoid fungal troubles with proper spacing and plant in a location with good air circulation.
When to Cut for Bouquets:
Harvest when flowers are fully open.